Science Policy


24.04.23 | 62 min read

火是一个自然而正常的生态过程,但是今天的大火有强度生长and cost, causing对人和财产的更多破坏。气候变化和我们过时的政策回应are amplifying these negative effects

在美国,联邦政府负责野外消防管理的责任。联邦实体管理开处方的烧伤和野火的公共土地,支持野火反应,并对火的影响进行研究。认识到这项工作只会增长,Bipartisan Infrastructure Lawauthorized theWildland Fire Mitigation and Management Commissionto develop and deliver一系列全面的新政策建议致力于国会,重点是“更好地预防,管理,抑制和从野火中恢复”。


响应委员会呼吁投入,,,,the Federation of American Scientists launched a荒地消防政策加速器to source and develop actionable policy ideas aimed at improving how we live with fire. This effort is in partnership withCOMPASS,,,,theCalifornia Council on Science and Technology (CCST), 和保护X实验室,他们在加速器主题和连接方面为感兴趣的社区带来了深厚的专业知识。

参与者来自学术界,私营部门,非营利组织和国家实验室,并在火灾生态,林业,建模,气候变化,消防情报,文化燃烧等方面带来了专业知识。加速器遵循FAS的接近Day One Project在几个月内提供结构化培训,支持和政策专家的反馈,以帮助参与者完善他们的政策思想。在加速器的第二阶段中,这些贡献者的一部分将在FAS网站上发布完整的备忘录,并提供有关其政策建议的更多信息。

Table of Contents

Landscapes and Communities

Create Federal Indemnity Fund to cover accidental damages from cultural and prescribed fire

克里斯·阿德兰(Chris Adlam),俄勒冈州立大学博士

几千年来,西方的森林从根本上是通过部落使用火的形状,而不同的部落采用了独特的文化火传统。不幸的是,现在,土著文化消防从业者被劝阻,不愿对私人和公共森林进行文化烧伤,因为他们担心在极少数情况下,文化大火意外逃脱了计划的界限,他们对损害赔偿负有责任。为了允许文化消防从业者努力恢复我们的森林,联邦政府必须保护他们免于对他们所执行的公共服务的风险承担个人责任。类似的程序也是如此被提出开处方的火; cultural burning should be equally protected and benefited by any Fund that is created.


Prescribed and cultural burning, in tandem with other treatments, are needed to reduce fuel loads and restore the health of forests that are relied upon for recreation, industry, and drinking water. Fuel treatment is also essential to reducing the cost of catastrophic wildfires, which cost the United States an estimated $14.5 billion dollars in damages and emergency response efforts from 2021 to 2022.

在全国范围内,规定的烧伤在经验上都是绝对安全的。根据美国森林服务局局长兰迪·摩尔(Randy Moore)的说法超过99.84%的USFS土地处方大火发生。在对南部大平原南部规定的烧伤的另一份评论中,研究人员发现了类似的发现,less than 1% of prescribed burns escape。尚未进行类似的研究来分析经验安全文化燃烧,但是相关研究的调查并未发现逃脱的文化燃烧的例子。但是,不能完全消除风险的事实使从业者和决策者限制了他们对受控燃烧的使用。如果烧伤造成损害,该基金将通过确保所有受影响的各方都将得到迅速而充分的补偿来最大程度地减少这些损害赔偿造成的破坏。通过建立这种资金结构,土地所有者将不再取决于国会的个人行为,以获得赔偿隐士的峰/小牛峡谷火做过。

在过去的一年中,各州在观察到支持消防人员的必要性后开始创造类似的资金。加利福尼亚最近创建了规定的火灾索赔基金and funded it with $20 million. However, a federal fund is needed to provide coverage on a larger scale, with a scope and financial scale that is not possible for individual states.


To ensure that Cultural Fire Practitioners across the nation are covered, Congress should consider the following actions:


这Fund could be paired with the development of regionally specific definitions of“文化消防从业者。”这些文化消防从业者的定义应在部落国家和组织领导的过程中发展。还应注意确保文化消防从业者可以在燃烧时不需要不必要的情况下获得基金 - 这会损害其文化传统或为他们的工作增加难以控制的监管负担。

为了进一步保护文化消防从业者在进行重要的公共服务时,国会还可以为文化消防从业者提供覆盖范围Federal Torts Claims Act,,,,similarly to how Tribal contractors, employees, and volunteers are classified as federal employees for the purpose of FTCA coverage. In the past, Tribal medical or law enforcement personnel have received coverage after taking over programs previously administered by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services or the Bureau of Indian Affairs. As policy reforms allow Tribal Cultural Fire Practitioners to practice cultural burns with less interference from the BIA, FTCA coverage would become increasingly beneficial and necessary.

By creating this Fund, Congress would support fire practitioners working on the frontlines of the crisis and the communities most threatened by fire.

Directly fund Tribes to create and implement land stewardship initiatives

加利福尼亚大学戴维斯分校的Nina Fontana博士

Across the United States, Tribal nations and organizations have the knowledge and will to lead cultural and prescribed burns. Unfortunately, they are consistently limited by (a) insufficient funds, and (b) burdensome regulatory requirements that often prove overly burdensome to comply with. These two issues are connected. Tribal practitioners are often unable to obtain federal grants for land stewardship purposes because they do not have the capacity to find and apply for them, to compete with state agencies and organizations in the application process, and to comply with the grant requirements, which can conflict with Cultural Fire traditions in fundamental ways.

Congress should appropriate discretionary funds directly to Tribal nations and Tribally-led organizations for fire hazard reduction in order to decrease the administrative capacity needed for Tribes to compete for grants. The funds will be dispersed by regional Tribal liaisons, who will gather and utilize input from local actors to direct grants.

Tribal governments and organizations require direct grant funding to exercise their sovereignty in a rightfully unencumbered manner. When Tribal governments and organizations are provided with adequate funding and are able to direct its usage, Cultural Fire Practitioners (CFPs) are able to design cultural fire projects that fit their unique traditions and local plant communities contained within their lands. In addition, by giving Tribes greater discretion over funds, the federal government would a) decrease the regulatory burden on Tribes, and b) provide greater recognition of cultural burning as a uniquely valuable form of land restoration and place-based knowledge, instead of categorizing the practice as an often-overlooked subset of prescribed burning.



We recommend that Congress:


It is time for the federal government to recognize the deep expertise of Tribes in fire management. By giving Tribes greater influence in determining the use of funds for preventative and mitigative activities, Congress would bring funding structures in line with the rightful sovereignty of Tribes, and it would protect communities and natural resources across the country by clearing the path for more beneficial fire.


加利福尼亚大学戴维斯分校的Nina Fontana博士;克里斯·阿德兰(Chris Adlam),俄勒冈州立大学博士

One of the original stated purposes of theNational Environmental Policy Act1969年是“促进努力将阻止或者eliminate damage to the environment and biosphere and stimulate the health and welfare of man.” Cultural and prescribed burning directly contribute to this goal. Unfortunately, current interpretations of NEPA require Cultural Fire Practitioners (CFPs) to undertake onerous Environmental Impact Statements before burns on federal or Tribal trust lands, which often prevent Tribes from even attempting to burn in these locations. Because Tribal lands are held in trust by the federal government, CFPs must also comply with NEPA regulations that were designed to govern federal actions. This arrangement limits Tribal sovereignty and imposes an undue burden.

To bring the implementation of NEPA in line with its purpose, NEPA should recognize cultural burning as part of the background condition of our natural environment here in the United States. Tribes have几个世纪以来,都利用了这些文化燃烧的做法,管理美国境内容易发生的景观采取措施来保护古代野外城市界面在西南。通过这么悠久的历史,文化燃烧从根本上影响了我们当今我们认为是人类环境。因此,文化燃烧应归类为绝对排斥。

最新实施NEPA的指南包括“规定燃烧以减少天然燃料积累并改善植物活力”的绝对排除,只要该项目不需要使用除草剂或低标准道路建设的1英里以上(DOE NEPA Guidelines)。Additionally, the Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act categoricallyexcluded在特定情况下,“建立和维持线性燃料破裂”是为了减轻野火风险的目的。

这following recommendations represent several pathways for Congress to encourage cultural burning. By implementing one or all of these measures, Congress would begin the process of recognizing burning as a sovereign right for Tribes (similar to hunting and plant gathering) and therefore exempt from permitting.



By carrying out these recommendations, Congress would bring the implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act in line with its original purpose and create positive impacts on the ground for communities across the nation.


Raymond Gutteriez, Member of Wuksachi Band of Mono Indians


As an important first step in encouraging cultural fire, Congress should direct the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the US Department of the Interior (DOI) to develop regionally-specific definitions of ‘cultural fire’ and ‘Cultural Fire Practitioner’ through a process led by Tribal governments.

Currently, the federal government does not adequately recognize cultural fire, despite its deep-rooted traditional significance for Tribal Nations and its potential benefits for forest and wildfire management across the country. Because of this缺乏认可和其他障碍,许多CFP无法执行其文化火传统。那些继续实施文化大火的人不得不在联邦支持最少和更高的个人风险下运作。此外,他们被迫显着改变其传统和实践,以适合为规定的烧伤而设计的现有法律程序和定义。这些因素已经结合起来,使文化燃烧在联邦,部落和州土地上难以实施。


In order to provide the proper legal framework needed to enable and support cultural burning, Congress should:

这se definitions will create a legal foundation that can be used to expand the role of cultural burners and ease restrictions, in a manner similar to that of California’s own legislation defining cultural burning (CA SB 332; CA SB 926; CA AB 642). In tandem with adopting a formal definition, California implemented a gross negligence standard that limited the financial liability of CFP who take appropriate precautions before a fire.


By codifying these definitions, the federal government would take a key step in elevating the visibility and status of Cultural Fire Practitioners as key partners in land stewardship and wildfire risk reduction and management.


Raymond Gutteriez, Member of Wuksachi Band of Mono Indians

Under theIndian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act of 19752004年的《部落森林保护法》(TFPA),部落能够对由USFS管理和BIA管理的土地提出和执行项目(称为638个项目),该土地(i)边界或与印度信托土地相邻,(ii)对火灾,疾病或其他威胁构成。部落森林或牧场或其他需要土地修复活动。不幸的是,很少有人提出或实施638个项目,这在很大程度上是由于缺乏资金及其有限的范围,其中包括拥有与联邦管理土地相邻的土地的部落。

国会应为“ 638”项目提供专门的资金,并将TFPA的范围扩大到包括部落国家的祖先家园。

这aforementioned 638 law was enacted to promote “maximum Indian participation in the Government,” but it fails at this goal in its current form. The initiative has been hampered by the fact that “no specific funding was appropriated or authorized for 638” projects (USFS)。Instead, funding is expected to be obtained from other sources of funds for activities on federal lands, which often require prohibitive amounts of administrative burdens for Tribes to compete for and obtain. Additionally, many Tribes are ineligible to participate in 638 projects because they do not possess lands that are adjacent to national forests, even though those national forest lands are part of their ancestral homelands.


We recommend that Congress consider:

In addition, these changes can be paired with other efforts to expand Tribal authority and ability to plan, implement, and review prescribed and cultural burns on federal lands.


Max Moritz, Adjunct Professor, UC Santa Barbara

Federal spending on wildfire suppression has气泡在过去的四十年中。尽管做出了这些努力,但野火造成的财产损失仍在继续升级,毁灭性社区,抢劫成千上万的珍贵房屋,企业和聚会场所。

This is in part because more and more Americans are living and working adjacent to wildlands, where they are more vulnerable to wildfire impacts. In 2020,450万户房屋位于“高或极端野火风险”的地区。更糟糕的是,在州,地方和私人土地上大火已经doubledin size (on average) since 1991. While decisions about land use and urban planning are made locally, there are important opportunities for crucial guidance at the federal level to help mitigate harm to communities.

Congress should direct agencies to determine to what extent and through what mechanisms federal dollars are subsidizing development in a manner that perpetuates fire risk.

我们在哪里以及如何建立社区可以influence fire probabilities在里面broader region surrounding a particular development, crossing administrative boundaries and even state lines.


这联邦government should investigate to what extent and through which programs it is subsidizing development in a manner that exacerbates fire risk. Using this information, Congress and agencies can take action through existing mechanisms to support local and regional planning that is both弹性and equitable.






Make smoke management a core goal of wildland fire management

康奈尔大学公共与生态系统健康系实践助理教授Alistair Hayden


Congress should establish smoke management as a core goal of wildland fire management and create institutional capacity to achieve that goal.

2014 National Cohesive Wildland Fire Management Strategydescribes a vision for the century: “To safely and effectively extinguish fire, when needed; use fire where allowable; manage our natural resources; and as a Nation, live with wildland fire.” Significant research conducted since the publication of the Strategy indicates that wildfire smoke impacts people across the United States, causing10,000人死亡and数十亿美元of economic losses annually. Smoke impactsexceed它们相应的火焰影响;然而,野火战略和fundinglargely focus on flames and their impacts.

为了确保所有荒地fi的影响re, including smoke, are addressed efficiently and comprehensively, Congress should take actions that establish wildfire smoke management as a core goal of wildfire management.

为了确保Wildland Fire Smoke被视为核心Wildland火灾危害,国会应考虑修改相关立法以专门考虑烟雾。




  1. Amend the Bipartisan Infrastructure Law Sec. 70203(b) and the FLAME Act Sec. 3 to include smoke-expert agencies in development of the National Cohesive Wildland Fire Management Strategy.
  2. 通过新的政策,将烟雾过家机构添加到野火 - 政策合作中,包括国家机构间消防中心,国家野火协调小组, 和theWildland Fire Leadership Council.



康奈尔大学公共与生态系统健康系实践助理教授Alistair Hayden

在美国,越来越多的人受到野火烟雾 -27次比十年前,有更多的人经历了极端的烟雾。野火烟雾higher risks对于户外工作者,未受宠的个人,儿童,老年人以及患有糖尿病或心脏病的人。




To help communities准备烟雾事件

To ensure communities are able to确定潜在的致命烟雾事件,国会应该:



康奈尔大学实践助理教授Alistair Hayden;加利福尼亚科学技术委员会高级科学官Teresa Feo

National spending on fire suppression exceeds $4 billion in the fiscal year 2023 funding bill, while less than1000万美元分配用于烟雾管理。与烟相比,大火的600:1资金比率未对准经济影响的1:1比率1:100火与烟气死亡的比率


国会应采取行动以更好地利用野外火灾管理的背景下利用现有的烟数据,并填补关键的数据基础设施差距,以使烟雾管理成为Wildland Fire Management的核心部分。

Some smoke data is already collected, including smoke forecasts for active fires from the机构间野外消防空气质量响应计划以及环境保护局(EPA)的回顾性烟气排放总计National Emissions Inventory(NEI). However, these smoke impacts are considered separately from flame impacts (e.g., structures burned), and are left out of broader wildfire strategy. New authoritative realtime smoke-data tools need to be created and integrated into wildfire management strategy.


To better track health impacts of wildfire smoke,国会应该:

To better integrate smoke data with other fire data,国会应该:


这suggested additions would improve national technical ability to increase smoke-related safety, thereby saving lives and reducing smoke-related public health costs.

Support strategic deployment of community resilience hubs to mitigate smoke impacts and other hazards

Lee Ann Hill, Director of Energy and Health, PSE Healthy Energy


这联邦government can foster holistic community resilience to wildfire smoke impacts and other hazards by supporting the development of community resilience hubs.


Community resilience hubs equipped with heating, ventilation, and air conditioning and powered by distributed clean energy resources can reduce harmful smoke exposures while expanding broader community resilience amid extreme weather events, natural disasters, and grid outages. Local governments across the United States and Canada have既定的弹性中心关注灾难和应急响应;飞行员efforts to build resilience more holistically are underway inBaltimore, Marylandand北加州

这proposedWildfire Smoke Emergency Declaration Act of 2021在每次宣布紧急情况下,将重点介绍野火烟雾,包括提供“建立烟雾避难所,空气净化器和其他空气监测地点的资源”。联邦降低野火烟雾烟雾成本的努力应考虑投资如何有效地减轻多种危害暴露,从而降低单独专注于野火烟雾并在每次紧急烟雾声明中重新部署资源而降低效率低下。尽管evidence suggests弹性枢纽在社区主导时最有效,联邦政府可以在多危险环境中支持这些社区弹性工具的扩散。

To support these efforts, Congress can take the following steps:

Resilience hubs can reduce hazard exposures and strengthen community-level resilience to provide support during extreme weather events, natural disasters, and grid outages. Resources to support interagency coordination, distributed energy resource deployment, and data collection efforts can bolster and inform future and ongoing resilience hub planning and implementation efforts.


康奈尔大学公共与生态系统健康系实践助理教授Alistair Hayden; Susan Prichard, Research Scientist, University of Washington

最近的wildfires have spewed so much toxic smoke across the country that decades of life-saving air-quality improvement under the Clean Air Act (CAA) have beenreversed在许多州。CAA无意间通过拒绝在减轻灾难性野火所需的尺度上使用有益的火力来有助于这种逆转。国会应修改CAA,以激励有益的火灾,处方烧伤,文化燃烧和野火,以支持减轻无管理的野火所需的尺度上的使用。


这CAA aims to save lives and money by reducing air pollution, including wildfire smoke, but it currently discourages the beneficial fire that minimizes overall smoke output. Days with smoke from unplanned wildfires often qualify as “exceptional events” that CAA excludes from a jurisdiction’s pollution limits. In contrast, beneficial fires rarely qualify, so their smoke can make a jurisdiction exceed its pollution limits. Jurisdictions therefore restrict beneficial fire to achieve pollution limits, unintentionally preventing fire use at the needed scale. Current CAA policy therefore shifts smoke emissions from beneficial fires to unplanned wildfires, which disproportionately contribute to hazardous smoke impacts.

To incentivize more beneficial fire while leaving intact other life-saving provisions of the CAA, Congress should:


Science, Data, and Technology


Tim Ball, Fireball Information Technologies; Carlton Pennypacker; University of California, Berkeley; Harry Statter, Frontline Wildfire Defense

这authors are part of a research group,FUEGO,这设计了一颗卫星,以弥合本提案中描述的情报差距。



美国消防局和USGS应该在建立一个public-private-university-nonprofit partnership to collect, combine, and disseminate actionable information on fire activity for the benefit of firefighters and the public. A key piece of the intelligence system is a new geostationary satellite launched and maintained by the appropriate federal agencies.


Lack of intelligence in the first 90 minutes of the 2018 Camp Fire thwarted the wildfire evacuation plan that had been practiced by the town of Paradise, California. Because of the time of the fire, the aircraft that would have normally been used to gather intelligence was unstaffed and no alternative sources of intelligence were available. Mandatory evacuation of the town began只有在镇上建立了大火之后。营地大火,情报挑战以及疏散问题的速度并非独特。


由新的地理卫星收集的情报应与其他来源合并,以形成综合的情报系统。这需要协调,可能是通过公私 - 大学 - 非营利性合作伙伴关系来实现可行智能的收集,融合和传播,但是该系统的基石必须是地理卫星。此外,跨空间决议和时间尺度收集新数据将对消防科学,火灾建模工作以及缓解消防工作的评估产生重大贡献。



这authors are part of a research group,FUEGO,这设计了一颗卫星,以弥合此处描述的这一智能差距。下表将该系统的技术参数与目前用于火灾管理的卫星进行了比较。

FUEGO GOES Meso Sector
Minimum Detectable Fire 2 to 2 Megawatts 35兆瓦 7 Megawatts
持久性(地球上同一个位置的图像之间的秒数) 20秒 60 seconds 43000秒
Spatial Resolution Ground Sample Distance (Meters) 290 2200 375
能够在像素中定位点源 1/10th pixel none none
Data Latency 90秒 300 seconds 12000秒

Advance the predictive science of fire ecology and forest resilience

温斯洛·汉森(Winslow Hansen),森林生态学家,卡里生态系统研究所


Congress should support an ambitious research collaborativeto ensure the predictive science of fire ecology and forest resilience rapidly advances in time to support management and policy that addresses the fire crisis.

Recognizing the severity of the fire crisis, Congress分配《减少通货膨胀法案》的“森林管理,规划和恢复”活动的50亿美元,包括危险燃料处理。尽管前所未有,但这项投资足以机械地处理西部森林的一小部分。这意味着经理需要在实施燃料处理并能够跟踪其功效方面具有战略意义。没有任何投资者会向无法定量评估损益的努力投入资金。投资解决火灾危机的策略也是如此。



We recommend that Congress:

We recommend that the USDA Forest Service and Department of Interior:

We anticipate that the collaborative would cost about 100 million dollars over ten years. This funding would support a network of 20 scientific teams across the country and a lead center of excellence that provides synthesis, coordination, amplification, and management. Leaders of this effort should consider ongoing research efforts in relevant disciplines, collaborating where appropriate to ensure efforts are not duplicated.

NSF is the right agency to administer the collaborative because of their deep expertise in funding basic and applied research and because of their success in ambitious large-scale initiatives such as the长期生态研究网络National Ecological Observatory Network。NSF最近也制作了投资在消防研究中。我们的建议基于这一势头。与USDA森林服务,DOI和联合消防科学计划的合作伙伴关系将加强科学与经理需求之间的联系。如果启动,科学合作培训将为经理和政策制定者提供计划策略的工具,并基于最先进的建模和遥感,并以强大的基础为基础,跟踪联邦投资在主动消防和森林管理中的功效科学。

Develop next-generation fire and vegetation models for a changing climate

新墨西哥州大学马修·赫特(Matthew Hurteau)


Congress should establish and fund centers of excellence to develop, maintain, and operate next-generation fire and vegetation models that support wildland fire planning and management.

Climate change is expanding what is flammable. For example, the2020小溪大火在加利福尼亚州,已经被甲壳虫侵扰和干旱削弱的森林烧毁,并以如此强度的强度燃烧,以至于当前的运营火灾模型无法再现事件。持续的气候变化使这种极端的火灾行为成为可能。

这wildfire research community has demonstrated it can respond to problem-based research needs as evidenced by the successful联合消防科学计划以及卓越中心(COE)的国家科学基金会资助。COE是在各种主题领域中创建的,并证明,支持专业知识的枢纽以解决特定的研究领域会带来积极的成果。开发五个区域COES将a)促进跨学科,机构和地区的研究合作,以及b)提供区域服务中心,该中心将开发和运行重点是本地和事件的近期和中期动态(例如,治疗单位,Wildfire)支持土地管理计划和决策的规模。一个跨科技领导团队将确保研发活动是互补的。

We recommend that Congress:



Managing fuels effectively to prevent future catastrophic events requires developing models that account for the new climatic conditions fire managers face, and will allow us to make wildfire management more predictable.


俄勒冈州立大学副教授Meg Krawchuk

For years, the federal government has recognized the importance of scientists and decision-makers working together to solve complex wildland fire management problems. While many successful federal programs support such collaborations, institutional barriers still stand in the way of many fruitful science coproduction and communication efforts in wildland fire management.


According to USGS,共同制作科学项目“专注于科学家和资源经理紧密合作,以生产用于为自然资源管理决策提供信息的可行产品。”更广泛地说,项目和计划级别的科学沟通工作可以提高共同制作的科学和蒸馏文献在决策应用中的影响力和相关性。多年来,土地管理机构多年来,这些方法在Wildland Fire Science and Management领域受到了支持(包括USGS气候适应科学中心and美国森林服务)和资金机构(包括联合消防科学计划(JFSP) and国家科学基金会)。

However, both researchers and natural resource managers report that资金,能力和机构障碍inhibit coproduced science efforts in wildland fire. For example,financial support and incentive structures(e.g., performance evaluation criteria, awards, and professional recognition) are often insufficient to support scientists in conducting longer-term collaborative, relationship-building work that can extend the reach and impact of co-produced science. Furthermore, program staff in agencies (where they exist) may lack bandwidth necessary to effectively distill large quantities of journal articles into the core “so what” conclusions needed by land management practitioners to integrate the most recent science with existing management strategies.

解决这些差距和更广泛的科学沟通支持对于最大程度地提高科学研究的潜力,以告知紧迫的森林管理问题并利用成功的共同制作项目的投资至关重要。对野外消防空间中的共同制作和沟通的更多支持将使机构能够确保决策者可以使用“最佳科学”,并可以实现联邦倡议中概述的目标USFS 10年野火危机策略,《降低通货膨胀法》,政府的“Year of Evidence for Action,,,,” and the “Year of Open Science。”

Specifically, Congress should:

Specifically, the Department of Interior US Geological Survey (USGS) and US Department of Agriculture’s Forest Service (USFS) should:

这se investments would total less than the current price tag of existing coproduction work but extend the reach and impact of initial investments.

Launch anOpen Disaster Data Initiativeto bolster whole-of-nation resilience from wildfires and related hazards

Shefali Juneja Lakhina,Wonder Labs


这Biden-Harris Administration shouldlaunch anOpen Disaster Data Initiative这要求联邦,州,地方和部落机构以一致且可互操作的格式系统地收集,共享,监控和报告灾难脆弱性,损害和损失数据。

In the past decade, several bipartisan研究,,,,数据, 和政策评论重申需要制定国家标准,以持续收集和报告损害和损失数据。最近的disasterandwildfire研究数据平台和标准提供了优先级,并展示了在数据标准和互操作性上的投资如何使包容性,公平和公正的灾难准备,响应和恢复成果。

Open Disaster Data Initiativewill enable longitudinal monitoring of pre- and post- event data for multiple hazards resulting in a better understanding of cascading climate impacts. Guided by the公开政府倡议(2016),Fifth National Action Plan(2022),以及Year of Open Science(2023),Open Disaster Data Initiative将在联邦,州和地方政府如何将资金优先考虑,特别是对边缘化社区的优先级优先级。


We recommend the White House and Congress, where appropriate, take the following actions:

  1. 任命科学技术和政策办公室的白人级人员职位来建立Open Disaster Data Initiativewith the participation of all relevant federal agencies currently engaged in the management of hydro-meteorological and hydro-geological hazards including drought, extreme heat, wildfires, smoke, flooding, and landslides.
  2. Issue anExecutive Order topromote the development and adoption of national standards for disaster vulnerability, damage, and loss data collection, sharing, and reporting,,,,by all relevant federal, state, local, and Tribal agencies, as well as by universities, non-profits, and the private sector.
  3. DesignateFEMA是维持国家灾难损失数据库的国家焦点机构- 一个联合,开放,集成和可互操作的灾难数据系统,可以无缝汇总本地数据,包括研究和非营利数据。FEMA的National Incident Management System做好积极准备穿过危险小姐吗on silos and offer wide-ranging operational support and trainingfor disaster loss accounting to federal, state, local, and Tribal agencies, as well as non-profit stakeholders.

基于最近开发全政府Covid-19-19大流行管理数据平台的经验,建议所有从事Wildland Fire Management活动的联邦机构合作采取以下步骤来启动Open Disaster Data Initiative

  1. Undertake a Disaster Data Systems and Infrastructure Assessment为了确定国家标准的发展并确定联邦,州,地方和部落机构以及慈善机构和私营部门的准确灾难数据跟踪,会计和共享的障碍。
  2. 采用国家灾难损失数据收集和报告标准to address ongoing issues concerning data quality, completeness, integration, interoperability, and accessibility.
  3. Ensure appropriate federal agency工作计划反映了国家数据标准,例如数字和基础架构计划,提案请求以及简化所有未来数据收集,共享和报告的采购流程。
  4. Develop federal agency capacitiesto accurately collect and analyze disaster vulnerability, damage, and loss data, especially as it relates to population estimates of mortality and morbidity, including from wildfire smoke.
  5. Provide guidance, training, and resources to states, non-profits, and the private sector to adopt national disaster data standardsand facilitate seamless roll-up of disaster vulnerability, damage, and loss data to the federal level thereby enabling accurate monitoring and accounting of community resilience in inclusive and equitable ways.

Open Disaster Data Initiativewill need a budget and capacity commitment to streamline disaster data collection and sharing to bolster whole-of-nation disaster resilience for at least three societal and environmental outcomes. First,the Initiative will enable enhanced data sharing and information coordinationamong federal, state, local, and Tribal agencies, as well as with universities, non-profits, philanthropies, and the private sector. Second,the Initiative will allow for longitudinal monitoring of cascading disaster impacts on community well-being and ecosystem health,包括更好地了解灾难如何影响贫困率,住房趋势,地方经济发展以及流离失所和移民趋势,尤其是在社会和历史上的边缘化社区中。最后,Initiative willinform the prioritization of policy and program investments for inclusive, equitable, and just disaster risk reduction outcomes,特别是在包括农村社区在内的社会和历史化社区中。

Develop a federal framework to measure and evaluate the socio-ecological impacts of wildfire

加州大学伯克利分校的副专家Leana Weissberg;加州大学伯克利分校的项目气氛董事肯·亚历克斯(Ken Alex)

In the face of the wildfire crisis, federal agencies must work together to ensure that historic investments reach their full potential to protect people, property, ecosystems, and cultural resources. At present, federal agencies lack a comprehensive framework for evaluating wildfire’s socio-ecological impacts and efforts to mitigate them. While the importance of evaluating wildfire impacts is widely recognized and smaller scale efforts are underway, agencies don’t currently have a coordinated data sharing and reporting strategy for wildfire impacts.

We propose that the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) convene federal fire agencies to develop a consistent and regionally appropriate framework for assessing the socio-ecological impacts of wildfire using metrics, benchmarks, and evaluation criteria.

当前的联邦机构收集,报告和评估Wildland Fire的影响的努力是分散和孤立的。在某些情况下,存在传达重要信息的数据集(例如火灾严重性和火灾后碎片流评估),但没有系统地报告。在其他情况下,孤立地报告了代表野火影响的一个方面的数据,从而限制了它们在决策中的使用。例如,关于烧毁的英亩和野火排放的数据很少与普查数据相结合,以估计野火的公共卫生影响。

As fire risk reduction investments reach historic levels, a systematic approach to evaluating and mitigating wildfire impacts is critical. By synthesizing and reporting data otherwise produced and evaluated in isolation, a more comprehensive framework will improve our collective understanding of the totality of wildfire impacts, where impacts are most severe, where they are ecologically beneficial, and how they evolve.

参与野外消防管理的联邦部门和机构已经承认使用最佳科学和衡量绩效的重要性。作为两个领先的联邦消防实体,美国森林服务局和室内部门认识到有必要使用最佳的科学来进行优先设置。此外,来自其他联邦消防实体的战略规划文件确定了对新的需求绩效措施和仪表板(DHS)公平灾难恢复和改革的气候威胁信息交付(DOC) for improved outcomes in underserved communities. The proposed framework would create connected governmental initiatives and resources to reduce redundancy, build a more complete understanding of wildfire’s socio-ecological impacts, and ensure coordinated and comprehensive reporting on progress toward impact mitigation. All federal departments and agencies whose work touches wildland fire should be involved in this effort, including: DHS, DOC, DOE, DOI, DOT, DHS (including the CDC and NIH), USDA, EPA, and NSF.

We recommend that Congress take the following steps to implement this framework:

成功的框架将需要资金进行协调(人员配备,数据收集工作,范围的数字基础架构要求和报告)以及实施(扩大数据收集和构建数字基础架构)。每个部门的一名GS-13和三名GS-11员工组成的团队每年将花费约3至330万美元。或者,框架发展可以利用术语长度人员,例如U.S. Digital Service


Daniel Wholey, Rain Industries

Uncrewed aerial systems (UAS) have diverse uses in wildland fire management, including real-time fire mapping, delivering supplies to responders, conducting backburns and prescribed fires, and even providing artificial rainfall for fire suppression. Congress has directed the Department of Interior (DOI) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA) to expand the use of UAS in wildland fire management operations through legislation such as the Dingell Jr. Act.Security concerns在2020年培养的成长暂时停止了现有的UAS计划,并阻碍了该技术的开发和整合。

Congress, DOI, and USDA should fully resume implementation of the UAS program outlined in the Dingell Jr. Act and include new funding opportunities to promote the development of domestic UAS technology for wildland fire suppression and other management needs.

美国的消防机构有效地使用小型UA进行开处方的火灾和野外火灾映射。尽管小型UAS为消防机构提供了重要的价值,但我们认为目前未充分利用的大型UA可以显着提高火灾映射和抑制工作的安全性和效率。其他小组已经证明了更大,更先进的UA在野火管理和响应中可以发挥的作用。在2018年加利福尼亚国民警卫队使用了MQ-9收割机这是一个遥远的大型UAS,可实时绘制野火,并将实时视频发送到运营设施,从而提供关键的情境意识。Lockheed Martin and KAMANdemonstrated cargo and water drops from the K-MAX helicopter.Rain Industries[作者丹尼尔·沃利(Daniel Gully)受雇于雨工业(Rain Industries)]正在与第三方早期检测网络集成,并自动化大型UA,以迅速对Wildland Fire Dignition响应。

Dingell Jr Act指示DOI和USDA扩展UAS计划,并评估包括大型UA的新技术,包括大型UAS,以加速UAS在部门运营中的部署和集成。该法案的实施在2020年特朗普政府时受到质疑接地无人机担心敏感数据已发送给中国制造商,中国政府可以在那里访问它。自从此挫折以来,已经在几个方面取得了进步。doi有效地解除了无人机操作2022年12月的禁令。最近的拨款中有超过6亿美元用于准备和抑制,其中一些可用于推进UAS计划。

Given mandates from Congress and the continuing security concerns associated with foreign UAS technology, we believe that the solution is to expand domestic research, development, and production of large UAS for wildfire management operations.


DOI and USDA should resume implementation of the Dingell Jr. Act and include an initiative to promote domestic research, development, and production of large UAS, such as helicopters or fixed-wing aircraft, for wildfire management operations, particularly suppression. This initiative should include innovative funding mechanisms such as奖杯,,,,milestone-based payment programs, and小型企业创新研究(SBIR)和小型企业技术转移(STTR)



Establish a Tribal ranger program to fund permanent land stewardship opportunities for Tribal communities

克里斯·阿德兰(Chris Adlam),俄勒冈州立大学博士

由于历史性的剥夺公民权利和当前的社会经济状况,部落国家的许多成员目前缺乏与以前对千禧一代相同的几代人来管家祖先土地所需的资源和时间。缺乏机会为部落社区带来了负面结果,,,,including compromised forest health on ancestral lands, entrenched poverty on reservations, and the erosion of vital, intergenerational Traditional Ecological Knowledge.

国会应将资金分配给部落国家和部落领导的组织,以创建和定义计划,以建立澳大利亚的土著游侠计划或者加拿大的土著监护人计划,,,,that provide stable funding for long-term employment opportunities, training, and equipment for Tribes to carry out land stewardship activities, including cultural burns, post-fire monitoring, and ecological restoration.

加拿大和澳大利亚的计划为部落国家和组织成员创造了长期和短期就业机会,他们有助于发展致力于恢复和野火缓解的劳动力。这些计划授权土著群体促进土地有效管理,建立持久的关系并更好地转移代际知识。例如,澳大利亚的土著游骑兵团体reported several broader benefits对于他们在内部运营的长期以来的社区,包括“更安全的社区,加强语言和文化,找到有意义的就业,对妇女的尊重以及对年轻人的更多榜样的能力”。澳大利亚的类似计划已经看到returns on investment of upward of $3.50 per $1.00 invested

By following these successful models, the federal government can create economically beneficial opportunities for Tribal nations and organizations to steward forests on their ancestral lands. This program could focus on long-term opportunities to maximize the benefit of place-based, intergenerational knowledge and wisdom. The United States Tribal Ranger program has the potential to provide a high return on investment by protecting wildland urban interface communities and infrastructure, safeguarding watersheds and air quality, and providing needed economic benefits for Indigenous participants, their communities, and other communities in the landscapes within which they serve.


We recommend that Congress consider:

Tribes and Indigenous-oriented organizations could also decide to utilize the program and its funding to create apprenticeship programs (such as those recommended here) focused on conserving and implementing place-based knowledge to steward ancestral lands. If necessary, this program could be launched as a pilot project with additional funds allocated at a later date.



Irva Hertz-Piccioto, Professor and Director, Environmental Health Sciences CenterUniversity of California, Davis

我们森林中的死和生病的树木和浓密的营养碎片是fuelingmegafires and magnifying their frequency, intensity, and destructiveness. Fire suppression alone hascostthe U.S. between $1.5 billion and $4.5 billion annually since 2012. Suppression costs amount to only a small fraction of the full costs of wildfire, which include economic, infrastructure, ecosystem, health and other costs. Fixing this problem will require restoring forest health throughout the country through a massive increase in the wildland firefighting workforce, particularly those trained in mitigation and resilience.


准备应对国家野外火灾挑战的劳动力投资已经在进行中。例如,DOI Wildland Fire办公室美国农业部正在使用两党基础设施​​法的资金来支持“更永久的劳动力,能够全年进行火灾反应和缓解工作”。使Wildland Fire员工队伍专业化以解决更长的火灾季节,并准备这些工人支持缓解工作,这对于建立更具弹性的景观至关重要。但是,仅此一项就不足以满足我们森林健康问题的规模。

Corps programs can supplement and complement the development of this more permanent workforce and simultaneously accelerate the pace of hazardous fuels reduction on the ground. Across the country, they are already doing so; for example, the加利福尼亚保护军团的林业军团(与美国森林服务局合作)着重于去除杂草丛生和死植被,这是在国家土地上缓解野火的一部分。成员获得相关的认证,为他们的林业职业做好准备。Americorps也有支持的该国多个地区的野地缓解活动,包括雇用退伍军人,并提供environmental stewardshipopportunities across the US.



We recommend that Congress:


Expanded Corps program will dramatically reduce destructive megafires and associated evacuations, provide cleaner air to breathe, and restore forest health across the nation.

它还将与新赋予的一代青年skills preparing them for quality jobs, as well as a meaningful connection to nature, improved morale and mental health, and a brighter future.

Invest in worker-led industries for whole-of-community wildfire resilience

Shefali Juneja Lakhina,Wonder Labs


这Biden-Harris Administration should launch an ‘Investing in worker-led industries for whole-of-community wildfire resilience’ program that supports innovative, future-ready, and tech-forward solutions from private industry, small businesses, and community-based organizations working on the frontlines of wildfire impacts. Over the next five years, at least $250 million should be invested in creating a worker-led forestry and fire industry to address the entire lifecycle of workforce development from education, training, and certification, to building resilient community infrastructure that includes family-sustaining housing, and enabling public health and whole-of-community wellbeing.

一些联邦,,,,状态, 和localefforts to train and certify more forestry and fire workers are already underway. While increased training and certification is one obvious solution to the current workforce shortage,最近的研究揭示解决与支付均等,体面的住房,心理健康和职业轨道途径,对于建立强大的和可持续森林恢复劳动力。但是,解决联邦和州机构的这些切入点不一定会导致基于地的,工人拥有和以社区为中心的解决方案care for informal sector workers在美国西部的野生世界界面和跨社区中生活和工作的人。支持创建数千个小型商机的创造high-road to address both the demand and supply sideof the current workforce problem in equitable and sustainable ways.

Building on the正义40指令,有很大的机会投资于大多数影响社区,包括土著社区,农村社区和低收入社区,这些社区容纳学生,志愿者,,,,移民, 和被监禁的工人。这项投资将刺激新的工人拥有和以工人为主导的工业 - 在野火风险评估,家庭硬化,可辩护的空间,减少燃料,规定的烧伤,木质大众工业,生物燃料,木材,木材,火灾检测和响应,保险,烟雾管理,烟雾管理,管理,烟雾管理,清洁空气结构,污点后重建和修复。该提案不会在孤岛中建立这些行业,而是刺激一个相互依存的网络组成的基于地点的工人拥有的小型企业,这些网络可以促进富有弹性的本地基础设施和整个社区福祉。

Investment in wildfire resilience must be considered a public good:对国家工人,社区基础设施和当地行业的投资。过去的举措,例如build affordable housing for farmworker families, 和ongoing initiatives, such as the Tahoe Truckee Community Foundation’sForest FuturesProgram, the塞拉森林企业家计划和加利福尼亚的Climate Catalyst Revolving Loan Fund,为公私的人类 - 菲兰人类合作伙伴关系提供先例,以将新颖的解决方案带入级联危机。该计划的资本可以以使工人拥有的合作社公平地解决劳动力差距并培养富有弹性的社区基础设施(包括家庭维持住房)的方式融合在一起。反过来,这可以产生新的本地行业 - 不仅在木材产品中,而且还可以在相关产品和服务中刺激更大的野火弹性经济。


这Biden-Harris Administration should invest in the creation of a new worker-led forestry and fire industry that supports the creation of resilient local infrastructure and enables whole-of-community wildfire resilience. Specifically, Wonder Labs recommends the following actions:

Build on the好工作挑战,,,,the U.S. Department of Commerce should pilot entrepreneurship hubs that provide at least $150m in agile capital and mentorship to trained forestry and fire workers to start up small businesses, procure equipment, create resilient local infrastructure, and contribute to multi-scalar wildfire resilience goals。这些枢纽应具有包容性和无歧视性,包括对被监禁和正义影响背景的人。

内政部和农业部应共同投资至少6000万美元,向各种土地和消防管理从业者提供敏捷资本,包括土著消防从业者,牧场主和农民,,,,all who are already contributing to land and habitat restoration on Tribal and private lands, and need investments to scale capacities, equipment, and local infrastructure.

这U.S. Forest Service, the National Park Service, and the Bureau of Land Management should work with relevant state agencies and private industry across the western United States to create career-pathways, including small business opportunities, for formerly incarcerated and justice-impacted individuals。Investing at least $25m in piloting such an initiative could enable effective reintegration with communities on release and contribute to greater social, economic, and environmental outcomes. Specifically,从加利福尼亚的体验中学习



瑞安·里德(Ryan Reed),卡鲁克部落的成员;土著消防从业者;FireGeneration合作;和凯尔·特雷夫尼(Kyle Trefny),FireGeneration合作

正如白宫所承认的那样recent guidance,传统的生态知识“历史上在科学社区中被边缘化,并被排除在研究和学术资源,资金和其他机会之外。”野外火领域也不例外:传统的生态土著知识系统已降级为缓解火灾和管理领导的外围,阻止了文化消防从业者在凭证系统中认可的文化火灾经验多年。

国家野火协调小组应制定课程和资格标准,以认识传统的生态知识系统,并采取进一步的行动来解决参与Wildland Fire Management劳动力的系统性障碍。


Women and elders often serve as leaders and teachers in Indigenous communities, stewarding and passing down Traditional Ecological Knowledge. Unfortunately, women完全包容和进步的面部障碍在里面male-dominated wildland fire workforce。For example, one森林服务调查found that three in four women report having “felt out of place at work because of their gender” and that women in leadership roles “face challenges finding respect.” One third of surveyed Forest Service employees believed that personal characteristics hindered career advancement in wildland fire.

必须克服这些系统性的障碍,以为涉及土著妇女和长老的更具包容性的消防管理领导层创造途径,并在野外火灾领域支持边缘化群体。这国家野火协调小组,,,,which establishes operations, positions, and qualification standards across agencies in wildland fire, should take further action to foster a wildland fire workforce and culture that reflects the full diversity of knowledge and experience that America has to offer.


To ensure that existing workforce development programs incorporate Indigenous knowledge, the National Wildfire Coordinating Group should:


Support the ecological fire management workforce of the future through investments in education for youth and communities

瑞安·里德(Ryan Reed),卡鲁克部落的成员;土著消防从业者;FireGeneration合作;和凯尔·特雷夫尼(Kyle Trefny),FireGeneration合作

林野火灾不仅影响荒地,puts livelihoods, physical safety, and treasured cultural resources at risk. Despite the danger fire presents, local communities are often left out of discussions and development when it comes to fire management policy. In this gap is a critical opportunity: a younger generation eager to facilitate transformational shifts to protect their communities and local land.

Congress should invest in youth programs that in the short-term provide a trained workforce to supplement agency capacity, and in the long-term, provide a pathway for a life-long career in fire management.


We recommend that Congress:

Directly Fund Tribes to Create and Implement Land Stewardship Initiatives

加利福尼亚大学戴维斯分校的Nina Fontana博士

Across the United States, Tribal nations and organizations have the knowledge and will to lead cultural and prescribed burns. Unfortunately, they are consistently limited by (a) insufficient funds, and (b) burdensome regulatory requirements that often prove overly burdensome to comply with. These two issues are connected. Tribal practitioners are often unable to obtain federal grants for land stewardship purposes because they do not have the capacity to find and apply for them, to compete with state agencies and organizations in the application process, and to comply with the grant requirements, which can conflict with Cultural Fire traditions in fundamental ways.

Congress should appropriate discretionary funds directly to Tribal nations and Tribally-led organizations for fire hazard reduction in order to decrease the administrative capacity needed for Tribes to compete for grants. The funds will be dispersed by regional Tribal liaisons, who will gather and utilize input from local actors to direct grants.

Tribal governments and organizations require direct grant funding to exercise their sovereignty in a rightfully unencumbered manner. When Tribal governments and organizations are provided with adequate funding and are able to direct its usage, Cultural Fire Practitioners are able to design cultural fire projects that fit their unique traditions and local plant communities contained within their lands. In addition, by giving Tribes greater discretion over funds, the federal government would a) decrease the regulatory burden on Tribes, and b) provide greater recognition of cultural burning as a uniquely valuable form of land restoration and place-based knowledge, instead of categorizing the practice as an often-overlooked subset of prescribed burning.


We recommend that Congress:


It is time for the federal government to recognize the deep expertise of Tribes in fire management. By giving Tribes greater influence in determining the use of funds for preventative and mitigative activities, Congress would bring funding structures in line with the rightful sovereignty of Tribes, and it would protect communities and natural resources across the country by clearing the path for more beneficial fire.

About these recommendations

下面的建议包括针对国会和行政部门的想法。委员会可能希望考虑国会在鼓励或支持此处描述的行政部门变更方面发挥作用;此外,我们计划与包括Wildland Fire领导委员会(WFLC)和白宫野火弹性的机构间工作组在内的行政部门参与者分享这些建议。

A Note on Recommendation Attribution

Note that each of the recommendations below stands alone and is attributed to a specific contributor or team of contributors. The recommendations below不一定反映完整队列的观点。此外,整个建议清单也不一定反映出完整队列的观点,也不构成共识。


CDC: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention






HHS: Department of Health and Human Services




USDA: United States Department of Agriculture



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